The science of constructing a chart, however, is only the first step. Proper interpretation of the chart is both an art and a science. Properly done, it reveals personality insights and current trends, and should only be entrusted to a highly trained and accredited astrologer. Interest in astrology has persisted throughout the centuries, occasionally falling out of favor but always rebounding. Today, with practitioners in nearly every country, astrology's popularity is stronger than ever. Some may regard astrology as superstitious nonsense and without scientific basis.
Others acknowledge the gravitational forces exerted on our planet by the Sun and Moon and deduce that the planets have similar powers that can be charted through astrology. Still others maintain that the symbolism of astrology can provide a deeper understanding of ourselves and of events. The ancient civilizations are gone, but their gift of astrology survives.
If it didn't work, it would long ago have taken its place alongside them in the footnotes of history. We welcome you on your exciting and rewarding journey as you continue to explore astrology, the oldest of the sciences! For centuries it has been respected, yet ridiculed in almost the same breath. We have only to turn to the authority of the Encyclopedia Brittanica , which defines astrology as a science: "The ancient art or science of divining the fate and future of human beings from indications given by the position of stars and other heavenly bodies.
Its influence reaches back to the time when gods are said to have walked and talked with men. It was studied and practiced by all the great nations of antiquity and predates the sacred writings of nearly all religions and philosophies.
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Astrology's supporters extend from Plato to Copernicus to Sir Isaac Newton to Flamstead the great Astronomer Royal who helped to build the Greenwich Observatory to former First Lady Nancy Reagan, as well as countless business and financial people and others. Despite the fact that scientists today are dealing with cosmic rays and their influence upon people and Earth, they hold widely divergent views of the validity of astrology. Opinions range from the abrupt dismissal to those who have no knowledge but upon confrontation become instant "experts" as to its merits and advantages.
One thing is certain, few other topics stimulate as much debate as astrology. This was called the "epicycle.
ancient egyptian astrology
The first book defined Ptolemy's reasoning for practicing Astrology as well as astronomy, for by this time, there were many who opposed astrology. He said that it should not be abandoned merely because there are a few people who abuse it. This book also deals with the various alignments of planets, the moon, and the sun. Ptolemy describes in detail which positions are favorable and which are not.
He also explained the signs, when they begin, and why they begin there. The second book of the Tetrabiblos describes astrology as it relates to countries. Ptolemy makes the point that astrological events of countries and race supersede those of the individual. He details which planets rule over which country, and makes the distinction between human signs and animal signs.
History of Astrology
He notes that human signs cause things to happen to humans and animal signs affect animals. Finally, Ptolemy explains how the planets affect earth. For example, Saturn was thought to cause cold, floods, poverty, and death. Mars caused war and drought. Comets and shooting stars were thought to also affect the weather.
The third book dealt with the individual. The Tetrabiblos examined conception and birth, saying that it was better to work with the conception date and that this date should be known by observation. Several key factors were involved with this aspect of astrology. The sign that was rising at the time of conception, the moon's phase, and the movements of the planets were all taken into consideration. The father's influence was shown through the sun and Saturn, while the mother's was shown through the moon and Venus.
Finally, the forth book of the Tetrabiblos handled matters of occupation, marriage, children, travel, and 'houses' of the zodiac. The particular angles of various planets were used to calculate these things. The Tetrabiblos compiled almost all of the astrological works up to that point. Only very few modifications have been made since then, and most of what we know as astrology comes from this work.
Critics claim that it is "tedious and dry" to read, and that there are some contradictions in Ptolemy's ideas. Furthermore, he did not take into account the precession of the equinoxes.
Astrology and Astronomy in the Ancient World
He undoubtedly knew about this phenomenon, an overlapping between signs and constellations that gets larger over time about 5 degrees per three hundred years , but why he did not examine or explain this is a mystery and one of the biggest flaws of his work. There were also problems with his correlation between astrology and the seasons. His belief that the conception time was preferable to birth time is a misguided one, as conception time for an individual is actually rather difficult to calculate.
There were other errors in his work, mostly dealing with beliefs of the time and misinformation about astronomy; however, for the most part, the Tetrabiblos has proved invaluable to this day. Ptolemy may never have actually practiced astrology, as there has not been a single horoscope found that was created by him.
Some say that his writing almost reflects an embarrassment about astrology, and suggest that perhaps he might not have been a scholar of the art, but more a reporter of it.
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Probably the most disturbing accusation against Ptolemy is that his figures were intentionally skewed and doctored to fit his hypotheses. A study of Ptolemy's figures was done in , and the findings were that most of his data was fraudulent. For more on this subject, one should refer to the book by R. Newton, The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy. It is hard to hold this against Ptolemy; he was, of course, working in ancient times. However, had he used correct numbers in his work, it might not have taken future scholars more years to correct wrong ideas concerning the universe.
In his defense, he was living during a time when 'politically incorrect' beliefs could be grounds for punishment. It actually may not have been safe for him to expose the truth; instead he may have been forced to make his numbers fit into incorrect theories. He knew enough about the truth Apparently, fear for his own life is the reason why he did not act on his knowledge.
After Ptolemy, many astrologers followed. Some notable Egyptians in the field were Paul of Alexandria, Hephaestion of Thebes, and Palchus, though little other than their names are known about these people. Most of our understanding of Egyptian astrology is contained within the Cairo Calendar, which consists of a listing of all the days of an Egyptian year. The listings within the calendar all take the same form and can be broken up into three parts:.
Unlike modern astrology as found within newspapers, where one can choose whether to follow the advice there in or not, the Egyptians strictly adhered to what an astrologer would advise. As is evidenced by the papyrus of the Cairo Calendar, on days where there were adverse or favorable conditions, if the astrologers told a person not to go outside, not to bathe, or to eat fish on a particular day, such advice was taken very literally and seriously.costawebdesign.es/jud-comprar-azithromycin-vs.php
A History of Astrology: Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome | SEAH® Designs – Seah® LLC
Some of the most interesting and misunderstood information about the Ancient Egyptians concerns their calendarical and astrological system. Of the greatest fallacy about Ancient Egypt and it's belief in astrology concerns the supposed worship of animals. The Egyptians did not worship animals, rather the Egyptians according to an animals astrological significance, behaved in certain ritualistic ways toward certain animals on certain days. For example, as is evidenced by the papyrus Cairo Calendar, during the season of Emergence, it was the advisement of the Seers within the priestly caste , and the omens of certain animals they saw, which devised whether a specific date would be favorable or unfavorable.
The basis for deciding whether a date was favorable or unfavorable was based upon a belief in possession of good or evil spirits, and upon a mythological ascription to the gods. Simply, an animal was not ritually revered because it was an animal, but rather because it had the ability to become possessed, and therefore could cause harm or help to any individual near them. It was also conceived of that certain gods could on specific days take the form of specific animals.
Hence on certain days, it was more likely for a specific type of animal to become possessed by a spirit or god than on other days. The rituals that the Egyptians partook of to keep away evil spirits from possessing an animal consisted of sacrifice to magic, however, it was the seers and the astrologers who guided many of the Egyptians and their daily routines.
Hence, the origin of Egyptians worshipping animals, has more to do with the rituals to displace evil spirits, and their astrological system, more so than it does to actually worshipping animals. The pyramids have long fascinated Robert Bauval. He is Egyptian, born in Al-Iskandariyya Alexandria to Belgian parents, and has spent most of his life living and working in the Middle East.
For many years he had pondered over the significance of Sah, the constellation of Orion, and its link to the pyramids. Never mind that the earliest lists of astrological decans take names from Egyptian lists attested two millennia earlier; never mind all the ancient authors who attribute the astrological decans to the Egyptians.
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